The name Maundy Thursday is from the Old French mandé, which comes from the Latin mandatum novum –literally meaning “new mandate” or “new commandment.” This mandatum novum refers to Jesus’ famous words given to his disciples in the upper room as recorded in John’s Gospel: “A new command I give you: Love one another. As I have loved you, so you must love one another” (John 13:34 NIV). In the Christian calendar, the Thursday evening of Holy Week marks the conclusion of Lent and the start of what the ancient church called the Triduum, a three-day festival in which the church remembers the final hours of Jesus’ life, his passion, and his resurrection. These three days trace the events from Thursday night through Sunday morning as recorded in the Gospel accounts, and Maundy Thursday worship focuses specifically on the events from the upper room to the Garden of Gethsemane. Robert Webber writes, “The Maundy Thursday service enacts the giving of the new commandment of love, the inauguration of the Lord’s Table (Last Supper), and the journey of Jesus into the Garden of Gethsemane where he was captured and led captive toward his death.”
It is important to recognize again that this particular service does not stand by itself. It is merely the first installment of a unified liturgical act spanning the whole of the Triduum. “What happens on Maundy Thursday, Good Friday, and the Easter Vigil forms a continuous dramatic story. These days are to be seen together rather than separately. The services of the three final days of Holy Week connect with one another and, together, comprise the oneness of the Triduum.” Martin Connell writes of these three days; “the span is supposed to be essentially one liturgy celebrated over three days, a ritual uniqueness that is still quite difficult for many to comprehend and appreciate. Worship over the course of Holy Thursday, Good Friday, Holy Saturday, and Easter Sunday is not a series of individual liturgies, but the span of the Three Days is itself one rite.”
The synoptic Gospel accounts of the Last Supper (Matthew 26:17ff., Mark 14:12ff., and Luke 22:7ff.) associate this meal with the Jewish Passover. For example, Matthew 26:17 begins, “On the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread, the disciples came to Jesus and asked, ‘Where do you want us to make preparations for you to eat the Passover?’” The theological connections between the Passover and what Christ is about to accomplish through his passion are profound. The Passover was the most important Jewish holiday in Jesus’ time. This festival, established by God in Exodus 12:1-14, reminded the Jews that they once were enslaved in Egypt, and that God, through a gracious and graphic act of deliverance, had set them free. In the Passover, Jews remembered that the angel of death passed over their households because of the sign of the lamb’s blood they had placed on their doorframes. The Passover memorialized the Exodus and celebrated the Jews’ covenant relationship with God. This was a community-forming festival that reinforced the fact that the Israelites were a chosen people belonging to God. This communal, commemorative Passover festival served to strengthen the bonds of the Jewish people to their God and to one another.
It was within the context of this Passover celebration that Jesus instituted the new covenant sacrament of the Lord’s Supper on the Thursday night before his crucifixion. In Matthew’s Gospel we read, “While they were eating, Jesus took bread, gave thanks and broke it, and gave it to his disciples, saying, ‘Take and eat; this is my body.’ Then he took the cup, gave thanks and offered it to them, saying, ‘Drink from it, all of you. This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins’” (Matt. 26:26-28). With the institution of the Lord’s Supper during the time of the Passover, Jesus revealed that the Old Testament festival of deliverance was really a foreshadowing of a greater deliverance about to be fulfilled through his own sacrificial blood. Discussing Jesus’ introduction of the Lord’s Supper, Webber writes, “In this action [Jesus] took the central Jewish festival that marked Jewish spirituality and transformed it into a major source of Christian spirituality.” Also making the correlation between the Jewish festival and the Christian celebration, John Witvliet summarizes, “Just as the Passover celebrated the deliverance of Israel from slavery to freedom, so Easter celebrates deliverance from sin to salvation, from death to life.” Clearly, the Apostle Paul makes an undeniable connection between Jesus and the Passover when he writes in his first letter to the Corinthians, “For Christ, our Passover lamb, has been sacrificed” (1 Cor. 5:7b).
The description of Jesus as a sacrificial lamb is found in many other Scriptures as well. At the beginning of Jesus’ earthly ministry, John the Baptist describes Jesus as “the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world!” (John 1:29). The Apostle Peter writes, “For you know that it was not with perishable things such as silver or gold that you were redeemed…but with the precious blood of Christ, a lamb without blemish or defect” (1 Peter 1:18-19). Throughout the Book of Revelation we read about the worship of heaven directed to Jesus, the “Lamb who was slain” (Rev. 5:12), and in Acts 8 we read of an Ethiopian eunuch who was reading the following passage of Scripture from the Prophet Isaiah: “He was oppressed and afflicted, yet he did not open his mouth; he was led like a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers is silent, so he did not open his mouth” (Isaiah 53:7). When the eunuch asked Philip to explain about whom the prophet was speaking, we read that Philip “began with that very passage of Scripture and told him the good news about Jesus” (Acts 8:35). The fact that Jesus inaugurated the sacrament of the Lord’s Supper at Passover is certainly no coincidence. Tremper Longman asserts, “the timing of Christ’s crucifixion and indeed the whole structure of his earthly ministry point to the truth that he is the fulfillment of the Exodus; he is the Passover Lamb.”
Over the centuries, the Christian church has developed many liturgical practices associated with Maundy Thursday. Some scholars suggest that 1 Corinthians 5:7-8 gives evidence to an annual Christian paschal festival already in place in the first century. Whether or not this annual Christian feast existed in the apostolic era is not certain, but there is evidence as early as the second century that such a feast was celebrated in the church. In The Study of Liturgy, Peter G. Cobb writes, “Originally, when this Feast of Feasts emerges into the light of history in the second century, it is a unitive commemoration of the death and resurrection of our Lord, a nocturnal celebration of a single night, constituting the Christian Passover… It is the only feast of the Christian Year that can plausibly claim to go back to apostolic times.” In his homily on baptism (c. 200), Tertullian gives proof that Christians celebrated Christ’s passion during the time of the Jewish Passover feast. He writes, “The Passover provides the day of most solemnity for baptism, for then was accomplished our Lord’s passion, and into it we are baptized.” Hippolytus of Rome, in his Apostolic Tradition (c. 215), also shows that the early church recognized an annual Christian feast at the time of Passover. Concerning the paschal fast, Hippolytus instructs, “Let no one at the paschal season eat before the offering is made, otherwise he shall not be credited with the fast.”
It is in the fourth century that we see the expansion of the Christian paschal celebration into a several-day event. This is likely due in part to the fact that Christians enjoyed more freedoms beginning in the early part of the fourth century. Constance Cherry writes, “With the conversion of the Roman Emperor Constantine in 312 CE, Christianity was soon not only permitted, but commended; this opened up development of the Christian year even more and the church leaders took advantage of the opportunity.” In the early fourth century, with Constantine’s permission and sponsorship, the church at Jerusalem began to excavate and construct places of worship based on the major sites associated with the life of Christ. These locations, including the Church of the Holy Sepulcher built over the sites of the crucifixion, burial and resurrection, became important pilgrimage sites. These significant historic places became integral components to the developing worship practices in Jerusalem. It was in the Jerusalem church, under the leadership of Cyril, bishop of Jerusalem from 349-386 CE, where worship practices associated with the paschal event expand into a more elaborate and extensive expression spanning the events of Holy Week. James White observes, “In the course of the fourth century, the ancient unitive Pascha day which commemorated all the events of the last days of Jesus, including the crucifixion and resurrection, was divided into distinct commemorations.” These separate commemorations included Maundy Thursday, Good Friday, Holy Saturday, the Easter Vigil, as well as Palm Sunday and the three lesser days of Holy Week.
The primary source of first-person documentation on the worship practices in fourth-century Jerusalem comes from the travel diary of a Spanish pilgrim name Egeria. Describing her worship experience in Jerusalem on Holy Thursday, she writes:
Thursday is like the other days from cock-crow till morning in the Anastasis, at nine o’clock, and at midday. But it is the custom to assemble earlier than on ordinary days in the afternoon at the Martyrium, in fact at two o’clock, since the dismissal has to take place sooner. The assembled people have the service. On that day the Offering is made in the Martyrium, and the dismissal takes place at about four in the afternoon. Before the dismissal the archdeacon makes this announcement: “Let us meet tonight at seven o’clock in the church on the Eleona. There is great effort ahead of us tonight!”
Anastasis is a Greek term meaning “resurrection,” and it is the name for the worship area around the tomb in the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem. The Martyrium is also part of this central worship complex. It is the basilica-type structure associated with the site of the crucifixion. According to Egeria, there are regular daily worship services at the Anastasis before sunrise, then at dawn, midday, and three o’clock. On Maundy Thursday, however, it is necessary to meet earlier than three o’clock in the afternoon in order to make time for the special commemorative services that begin that evening in the Eleona, which is a basilica-like worship space located outside the city, at the Mount of Olives.
Egeria continues to narrate how the Christians commemorated the events of Maundy Thursday by explaining that the people hurry home to eat before heading out to the Eleona. She describes the Eleona as containing “the cave which on this very day the Lord visited with the apostles.” Then she gives the details of the rest of the liturgical activities of that night:
There they continue to sing hymns and antiphons suitable to the place and the day, with readings and prayers between, until about eleven o’clock at night. They read the passages from the Gospel about what the Lord said to his disciples when he sat in the very cave which is in the church.
At about midnight they leave and go up with hymns to the Imbomon, the place from which the Lord ascended into heaven. And there they again have readings and hymns and antiphons suitable to the day, and the prayers which the bishop says are all appropriate to the day and the place.
When the cock begins to crow, everyone leaves the Imbomon and comes down with singing to the place where the Lord prayed, as the Gospels describe in the passage which begins, “And he was parted from them about a stone’s cast, and prayed.” The bishop and all the people go into a graceful church which has been built there, have a prayer appropriate to the place and the day, and one suitable hymn. Then the Gospel passage is read where Jesus said to his disciples, “Watch, lest ye enter into temptation,” and, when the whole passage has been read, there is another prayer.
From there all of them, including the smallest children, now go down with singing and conduct the bishop to Gethsemane. There are a great many people, and they have been crowded together, tired by their vigil, and weakened by their daily fasting – and they have had a very big hill to come down – so they go very slowly on their way to Gethsemane. So that they can all see, they are provided with hundreds of church candles.
When everyone arrives at Gethsemane, they have an appropriate prayer, a hymn, and then a reading from the Gospel about the Lord’s arrest. By the time it has been read, everyone is groaning and lamenting and weeping so loud that people even across in the city can probably hear it all.
Egeria’s narrative account makes it easy to see how the power of these liturgical experiences in the Jerusalem church could have influenced the development of Holy Week liturgies outside of Jerusalem, which indeed is what happened. The unique worship practices rooted in the Jerusalem experience subsequently spread throughout the early Christian church as pilgrims travelled in and out of the Holy City.
By the end of the fourth century, in his Letter 55: to Januarius, Augustine, Bishop of Hippo in North Africa acknowledges the universality of the Triduum celebration: “Note, therefore, the three sacred days of His Crucifixion, Burial and Resurrection… Since it is clear from the Gospel on what days the Lord was crucified and rested in the tomb and rose again, there is added, through the councils of the fathers, the requirement of retaining those same days, and the whole Christian world is convinced that the pasch should be celebrated in that way.” Commenting on the liturgical observances of Holy Week and the ensuing development and expansion of the Christian calendar, Webber writes, “The aim of Holy Week was to make the life of Christ real for the worshiper. Enacting his last days and entering into his experience was a way of offering worship to him. This liturgical realism made a significant impact on the Christian world. It served as a primary impetus toward the development of the church year as a way of manifesting the entire life of Christ in the life of the worshiper.”
Throughout the Middle Ages, the Triduum, and Maundy Thursday in particular, underwent numerous changes. Maundy Thursday began to be associated in part with the restoration of penitent Christians. The Triduum celebration conveyed a deep sense of renewal for the church; accordingly, as Martin Connell puts it, “the members of the church should have an opportunity to confess their sins, make reparation, and be received back into communion as the great span of Three Days loomed.” R. F. Buxton, in his article in The New Dictionary of Liturgy and Worship, writes that one of the oldest acts of liturgical celebration for Maundy Thursday was the “public reconciliation of penitents, prior to their readmission to communion at Eastertide.” Buxton also makes note of the chrism mass, which was a separate liturgical act on Holy Thursday where the bishop blessed the oils for use in future rites and anointing ceremonies. Of course, the most fundamental and well-known liturgical act on Maundy Thursday is the Eucharistic celebration commemorating Jesus’ institution of the Lord’s Supper in the upper room.
The rite of footwashing emerged within the Maundy Thursday liturgy at least as early as the seventh century; however, there is evidence of a footwashing sacrament (not associated with Maundy Thursday) going back to the fourth century in northern Italy. Ambrose, Bishop of Milan, wrote about footwashing in his treatise, On the Sacraments: “Learn how it is a sacrament and a means of sanctification. ‘Unless I wash thy feet, thou wilt have no part with me’ (John 13:8). This I say, not to find fault with others, but to recommend my own usage.” There is no evidence that this footwashing rite mentioned by Ambrose had any association with a Maundy Thursday liturgical celebration, though Ambrose does reference a connection to the sacrament of baptism.
Between the seventh and eighth centuries there arose another somewhat unusual ceremonial rite where the communion elements were reserved and taken to a side altar called “the altar of repose.” The host was removed because the Eucharist was not celebrated again after the Maundy Thursday service until Easter. In conjunction with the removal of the host, there developed a ceremonial stripping of the altar. According to Buxton, this liturgical act “seems to have originated in seventh-century Spain and is also attested in several eighth-century Roman ordines.” The stripping of the altar was eventually accompanied by the reading of Psalm 22, and in the ninth century, as directed in the Ordo Romanus XXXI (c. 850-900), the altar cloth was removed when the liturgy came to the words, “They divided my garments among them and cast lots for my clothing” (Ps. 22:18). These two acts, the removal of the hosts and the stripping of the altar, presented a symbolic picture of Christ’s separation from his followers and the stripping of Christ prior to his crucifixion.  Laurence Hull Stookey also makes note of the aesthetic and emotive effect stripping of the altar has on the worshiper. He writes, “Psychologically it makes as bare as possible the worship space and thus sets up a powerful visual contrast for the rest of the Triduum.” Practically, these activities have also provided the occasion for the church to clean and prepare the worship space prior to the Easter celebration.
In the Protestant Reformation of the sixteenth century, Martin Luther reformed the liturgical year by basically eliminating the sanctoral cycle; however, he continued to recognize the major feasts of the Christian calendar. Luther asserts in his Formula Missae (1523), “But we at Wittenberg intend to observe only the Lord’s days and the festivals of the Lord. We think the feasts of the saints should be abrogated…” Three years later, in his German Mass (1526), Luther writes, “Lent, Palm Sunday, and Holy Week shall be retained, not to force anyone to fast, but to preserve the Passion history and the Gospels appointed for that season.” While a diversity of new Protestant worship practices were being established, the Catholic Church was determined to keep a tight rein on its liturgy. From 1570 until 1951, the Catholic liturgical rubrics specified that the footwashing rite on Maundy Thursday was to occur not as part of the Mass, but as a separate activity after the second consecrated host is removed to the altar of repose. This footwashing was only attended by a few of the clergy. Worship reforms in 1951 brought footwashing into the liturgy between the Word and Table.
Maundy Thursday worship communicates a variety of theological points to us as worshippers. Some churches hold an evening agape meal on Maundy Thursday. This meal recalls the fact that on this night Jesus gathered with his disciples for the Last Supper. The agape meal highlights the fellowship we have with God and one another, serving as a physical reminder of these covenantal relationships. Webber writes, “When we celebrate this service, the covenant between God and ourselves is renewed, and we are made ready for his death and resurrection. The agape meal that is celebrated with this service symbolizes, as meals in the Old Testament did, the relationship we have with God.” The word “agape” means “love” in Greek, and it communicates that this meal is “an occasion for the display and growth of God-centered Christian love.” This is an especially appropriate activity for Maundy Thursday since it is on this night that we remember Jesus’ new commandment of love. The themes of Christian love and fellowship permeate not only the agape meal, but several other Maundy Thursday events as well, including the footwashing ceremony and the Lord’s Supper. In addition, following the tradition of restoring the penitents, some Christians take this night to welcome back into their church community those who have been out of fellowship for various reasons.
The rite of footwashing practiced by some churches in conjunction with their Maundy Thursday service carries many symbolic meanings. Keith A. Graber Miller proposes, “Contemporary liturgical footwashings may emphasize cleansing, forgiveness, renewal, humility, discipleship, reconciliation or service, or may combine the various theological and ethical themes into a coherent whole.” Footwashing can be joined with the reception of penitents as a physical sign of forgiveness, cleansing, and restoration, but most often, and more closely following the emphases of John 13, the rite of footwashing is associated with the themes of humility and servanthood. Stookey places the stress on remembering Christ’s actions and what they communicate about his character. He writes, “Footwashing can be a compressed means of recalling the full extent of divine humiliation from manger to cross, and thus is a way of binding together on this evening all that we need to have in heart and mind as we begin to keep the Triduum.” Witvliet shares this Christocentric outlook on the footwashing ceremony. He writes, “For centuries, Christians remembered the powerful symbol of Jesus’ servanthood by re-enacting the ritual of footwashing in communal worship. This serves as a powerful witness of Jesus’ humility as he approached his death.” Reflecting on Jesus’ character is vitally important; however, Jesus himself performed this act of humility, love, and servanthood not just to display his character, but also as an example for his disciples to follow (John 13:15). Jesus wanted to tangibly communicate an important lesson for kingdom living – a lesson that goes against the world’s hierarchical view of leadership. A Maundy Thursday footwashing ceremony, therefore, can not only remind us of Christ’s sacrificial love, but it can also concretely yet mystically motivate us to take on the Christ-like attitude of humble service toward others. Webber writes, “In the liturgy of the early church the practice of a bishop washing the feet of people over whom he presides is a symbolic action communicating the message that Christianity reverses the social order and calls on all people, especially those who have a higher social position, to see their lives as lives of servanthood.” Jesus’ act of footwashing on Holy Thursday recalls his earlier words recorded in Matthew’s Gospel: “whoever wants to become great among you must be your servant, and whoever wants to be first must be your slave— just as the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many” (Matt. 20:26-28).
We have already discussed the institution of the Lord’s Supper, but there is one unique feature to this sacrament on Maundy Thursday that should be noted. Because this is the day when the church specifically remembers the historical event of Christ’s institution of the Lord’s Supper, the liturgy typically places the emphasis on the death of Christ. Webber makes the observation that the ancient church commonly celebrated both the death and resurrection in Eucharistic celebrations; however, he notes that Maundy Thursday is a special night in which “our spirituality is ordered into a deep, intense, and sustained emphasis on the death of Christ. The service asks us to recall that this is the ‘night when he was betrayed’ (I Cor. 11:23).” The observance of the Lord’s Supper on Maundy Thursday generally carries a more somber tone as we consider more carefully the historical context in which Christ instituted this sacrament.
Finally, we should mention the prayer vigil. This is a practice connected to the Gospel accounts of Jesus praying in the Garden of Gethsemane before his arrest. It recalls the fact that Jesus asked his disciples to watch and pray with him (Matt. 26:41). Some churches, after the Maundy Thursday service, keep a prayer vigil that lasts through the night into Good Friday. Commenting on this practice, Webber writes, “For those who are able to do the vigil, the tiredness of the body itself, which is often sustained through the three days, assists the spirit in experiencing to some small degree the pain and suffering of our Lord.” The prayer vigil, along with all the events associated with Maundy Thursday, serves to internalize the story of Christ’s passion beginning on Holy Thursday.
The many liturgical practices and customs discussed above do not simply imitate or dramatize the events of that Thursday night before the crucifixion, but they function as an avenue to a real participation with Christ and his church. The agape meal, footwashing, Lord’s Supper, stripping of the altar, and prayer vigil all serve to immerse the believer in God’s story of redemption and to assist in the real and contextual conversation between God and his gathered covenant people. These customs are not mere outward symbolic representations of a two thousand year-old story. Martin Connell explains, “the actions bring the community of faith together as participants in the present moment rather than as spectators at a past event they missed. The ritual actions carry and express communally the assembly’s thanksgiving, which is the liturgy’s end.” Maundy Thursday, with all its rich symbolism and deep theological significance, can be a powerful time of worship and spiritual formation in the life of a church. The overarching message of love – the love of Christ and the call to love one another – is proclaimed no more effectively or dramatically throughout the Christian year than on Maundy Thursday. “The early church,” Webber writes, “understood the principle that external rites order internal experience.” Modern churches that grasp this truth and apply it to their liturgical practices on Maundy Thursday will, without a doubt, know the indwelling presence and overwhelming love of God in Christ. Such churches that allow these external rites to truly order their internal experience will discover the power of God’s Spirit in them to obey the new commandment of love, and by this all men will know that they are Christ’s disciples (John 13:34).
 Hoyt L. Hickman et al., The New Handbook of the Christian Year (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1992), 161.
 Franklin M. Segler and Randall Bradley, Christian Worship: Its Theology and Practice, 3rd ed. (Nashville: B&H Academic, 2006), 225.
 Robert E. Webber, ed., The Services of the Christian Year, vol. 5 of The Complete Library of Christian Worship (Nashville: StarSong, 1994), 317.
 Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), Liturgical Year: The Worship of God (Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 1992), 34.
 Martin Connell, Eternity Today: On the Liturgical Year, vol. 2 (New York: Continuum International Publishing, 2006), 128.
 Gail Ramshaw, The Three-Day Feast: Maundy Thursday, Good Friday, Easter (Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress Publishers, 2004), 23.
 Fred B. Craddock et al., Preaching Through the Christian Year: Year A: A Comprehensive Commentary on the Lectionary (Valley Forge, Pennsylvania: Trinity Press International, 1992), 208.
 Robert E. Webber, Ancient-Future Time: Forming Spirituality Through the Christian Year (Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 2004), 128.
 John D. Witvliet, Worship Seeking Understanding: Windows into Christian Practice (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2003), 287.
 Tremper Longman III, Immanuel in Our Place: Seeing Christ in Israel’s Worship (Phillipsburg, New Jersey: P&R Publishing, 2001), 113.
 Peter G. Cobb, “The History of the Christian Year,” in The Study of Liturgy, rev. ed., Cheslyn Jones et al. (London: Oxford University Press, 1992), 459.
 Tertullian, “On Baptism,” in Documents of Christian Worship: Descriptive and Interpretive Resources, James F. White (Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 1992), 150.
 Burton Scott Easton, The Apostolic Tradition of Hippolytus: Translated into English with Introduction and Notes (Cambridge, England: University Press, 1934), 52-53.
 Constance Cherry, The Worship Architect: A Blueprint for Designing Culturally Relevant and Biblically Faithful Services (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2010), 210-211.
 Lester Ruth, Carrie Steenwyk and John D. Witvliet, Walking Where Jesus Walked: Worship in Fourth-Century Jerusalem (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2010), 4.
 White, Introduction, 55.
 Ibid., 56.
 Ruth, Steenwyk and Witvliet, 53.
 Ruth, Steenwyk and Witvliet, 151-152.
 Ibid., 47-48.
 Ibid., 54.
 Ruth, Steenwyk and Witvliet, 54.
 White, Introduction, 58.
 Augustine, “Letter 55: to Januarius,” in White, Documents, 25.
 Webber, Old & New, 224-225.
 Connell, 120.
 R. F. Buxton, “Maundy Thursday,” in The New Westminster Dictionary of Liturgy and Worship, ed. J. G. Davies (Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1986), 366.
 Ibid., 366-367.
 Ambrose, “On the Sacraments,” in White, Documents, 159.
 Buxton, 367.
 J. D. Crichton, “Altar, Stripping of,” in Davies, 11.
 Laurence Hull Stookey, Calendar: Christ’s Time for the Church (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1996), 96.
 Buxton, 367.
 Martin Luther, “Formula Missae,” in White, Documents, 34.
 Ibid., 35.
 Connell, 123-124.
 Webber, Ancient-Future Time, 126.
 Webber, Christian Year, 317.
 Frank Baker, “Love Feast,” in Davies, 341.
 Miller, 344.
 Stookey, 94.
 John D. Witvliet, “A Traditional Maundy Thursday Service,” in Webber, Christian Year, 319.
 Webber, Ancient-Future Time, 127.
 Ibid., 129.
 Webber, Christian Year, 317.
 Connell, 107.
 Webber, Ancient-Future Time, 125.